VAMPIRE: Vascular Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the REtina

The retina is one of the few places in the body allowing easy, non-invasive observation of blood vessels. There is clear evidence that the retinal vasculature provides early indicators of systemic conditions such as diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease: prodromal changes to the retinal capillary system can occur well before other symptoms are observed. Furthermore, the retinal vasculature is thought to predict neurovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Retinal image analysis may therefore provide an additional means to stratify risk and help identify people who would benefit from early lifestyle changes and preventative therapies.

Against this backdrop, Prof Emanuele Trucco (CVIP Dundee, School of Computing) and Dr Tom MacGillivray (Clinical Rsearch Imaging Centre, Univ of Edinburgh) have created and co-ordinate VAMPIRE (Vascular Measurement and Assessment Platform for Images of the REtina). The VAMPIRE project is a international collaboration of medical image analysis centres in Europe, Asia, the US and South America.

The VAMPIRE project is articulated along two main strands:

(1) RETINAL BIOMARKERS.

The VAMPIRE software suite translates cutting-edge image processing techniques to the clinical research environment, allowing clinical users without image analysis knowledge to obtain morphometric measurements of the retinal vasculature in biomarker-discovery studies. Current measurements include vessel calibre and related indices (CVRE, CRAE, AVR), bifurcation angles, tortuosity and fractal analysis, in addition to basic functions (OD location, retinal co-ordinate setup, vasculature location, artery-vein classification). To date, VAMPIRE has been used in clinical investigations of retinal biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, genetics, stroke, MS, cerebral malaria, and age-related cognitive change.

(2) RETINAL LESIONS.

Several funded projects in VAMPIRE have addressed the detection and quantification of lesions, especially ischemia, nonperfusion, telangictasia in fluorescein angiogram sequences. This work is a collaboration with the the Jules Stein Eye Research Institute at UCLA (Dr Jean Pierre Hubschman), and an uninterrupted ongoing collaboration since 2002 with OPTOS plc (www.optos.com), market leader in ultra-wide-field-of-view scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.

For further information, including publication list and PDF copies, please refer to the VAMPIRE website: http://vampire.computing.dundee.ac.uk/

Publications
2016
[67] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, S. Aggarwal, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"A Fully Automated Tortuosity Quantification System with Application to Corneal Nerve Fibres In Confocal Microscopy Images", Medical Image Analysis, April 2016. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[66] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, S. Aggarwal, B. M. Cavalcanti, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"Two-Dimensional Plane for Multi-Scale Quantification of Corneal Subbasal Nerve Tortuosity", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 57, no. 3, Mar 2016, pp. 1132. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[65] D. Relan, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, T. MacGillivray,
"Retinal Vessel Classification Based on Maximization of Squared-Loss Mutual Information", in Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing, R. Singh et al., Eds., Springer India, 2016, pp. 77-84. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[64] J. R. Cameron, L. Ballerini, C. Langan, C. Warren, N. Denholm, K. Smart, T. J. MacGillivray,
"Modulation of retinal image vasculature analysis to extend utility and provide secondary value from optical coherence tomography imaging", Journal of Medical Imaging, vol. 3, no. 2, 2016, pp. 020501-020501. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
2015
[63] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"Scale and Curvature Invariant Ridge Detector for Tortuous and Fragmented Structures", in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions (MICCAI 2015), Munich, Germany, pp. 588-595. [bib] [pdf]
[62] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"Boosting Hand-Crafted Features for Curvilinear Structure Segmentation by Learning Context Filters", in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions (MICCAI 2015), Munich, Germany, pp. 596-603. [bib] [pdf]
[61] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"Combining Efficient Hand-Crafted Features with Learned Filters for Fast and Accurate Corneal Nerve Fibre Centreline Detection", in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) 2015, Milan, Italy. [bib]
[60] E. Pellegrini, G. Robertson, L. Ballerini, T. Pearson, T. MacGillivray, E. Trucco,
"Morphometric Retinal Measurements with Ultra-Wide-Field-of-View Imaging", in 4th International Conference on Computational & Mathematical Biomedical Engineering (CMBE2015). [bib] [pdf]
[59] E. Trucco, A. Giachetti, L. Ballerini, D. Relan, A. Cavinato, T. MacGillivray,
"Morphometric Measurements of the Retinal Vasculature in Fundus Images with Vampire", John Wiley & Sons, 2015, pp. 91-111. [bib] [pdf]
[58] D. Sumukadas, M. McMurdo, I. Pieretti, L. Ballerini, R. Price, P. Wilson, A. Doney, G. Leese, E. Trucco,
"Association between retinal vasculature and muscle mass in older people", Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 61, no. 3, 2015, pp. 425 - 428. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[57] T. J. MacGillivray, J. R. Cameron, Q. Zhang, A. El-Medany, C. Mulholland, Z. Sheng, B. Dhillon, F. N. Doubal, P. J. Foster, E. Trucco, C. Sudlow,
"Suitability of UK Biobank Retinal Images for Automatic Analysis of Morphometric Properties of the Vasculature", PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 10, 2015, pp. e0127914. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
2014
[56] E. Pellegrini, G. Robertson, E. Trucco, T. J. MacGillivray, C. Lupascu, J. v. Hemert, M. C. Williams, D. E. Newby, E. J. v. Beek, G. Houston,
"Blood vessel segmentation and width estimation in ultra-wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy", Biomed. Opt. Express, vol. 5, no. 12, Dec 2014, pp. 4329-4337. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[55] A. Lisowska, R. Annunziata, E. Trucco, D. Karl, G. K. Loh,
"An Experimental Assessment of Five Indices of Retinal Vessel Tortuosity with the RET-TORT Public Dataset", in 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Chicago, USA, 2014, pp. 5414-5417. [bib] [pdf]
[54] R. Annunziata, A. Kheirkhah, S. Aggarwal, B. Cavalcanti, P. Hamrah, E. Trucco,
"Tortuosity classification of corneal nerves images using a multiple-scale-multiple-window approach", in Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis (OMIA) First International Workshop, MICCAI 2014, Boston, USA, pp. 113-120. [bib] [pdf]
[53] D. Relan, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, T. MacGillivray,
"Retina Vessel Classification based on Maximization of Squared-Loss Mutual Information", in IEEE SPS-APSIPA Winter School and Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing, India, 2014, pp. -. [bib] [pdf]
[52] D. Relan, T. MacGillivray, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco,
"Automatic Retinal vessel classification using a Least Square-Support Vector Machine in VAMPIRE", in 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Chicago, USA, 2014, pp. 142-145. [bib] [pdf]
[51] T. J. MacGillivray, E. Trucco, J. R. Cameron, B. Dhillon, J. G. Houston, E. J. R. van Beek,
"Retinal imaging as a source of biomarkers for diagnosis, characterization and prognosis of chronic illness or long-term conditions", The British Journal of Radiology, vol. 87, no. 1040, 2014, pp. 20130832. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[50] A. Giachetti, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco,
"Accurate and reliable segmentation of the optic disc in digital fundus images", Journal of Medical Imaging, vol. 1, no. 2, 2014, pp. 024001. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[49] S. Fiorini, M. De Biasi, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, A. Ruggeri,
"Automatic Generation of Synthetic Retinal Fundus Images", in Smart Tools & Apps for Graphics (STAG), Eurographics Digital Library, 2014, pp. 41-44. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[48] S. Fiorini, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, A. Ruggeri,
"Automatic Generation of Synthetic Retinal Fundus Images", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2014, pp. 7-12. [bib] [pdf]
2013
[47] K. Zutis, E. Trucco, J. Hubschman, D. Reed, S. Shah, J. v. Hemert,
"Towards Automatic Detection of Abnormal Retinal Capillaries in Ultra-Widefield-of-View Retinal Angiographic Exams", in 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, Japan, 2013, pp. 7372-7375. [bib] [pdf]
[46] Y. Wang, J. Guangrong, P. Lin, E. Trucco,
"Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Multiwavelet Kernels and Multiscale Hierarchical Decomposition", Pattern Recognition, vol. 46, 2013, pp. 2117-2133. [bib] [pdf]
[45] E. Trucco, A. Ruggeri, T. Karnowski, L. Giancarlo, E. Chaum, J. P. Hubschman, B. Al-Diri, C. Y. Cheung, D. Wong, M. Abramoff, G. Lim, D. Kumar, P. Burlina, N. M. Bressler, H. Jelinek, F. Maiaudeau, G. Quellec, T. MacGillivray, B. Dhillon,
"Validating Retinal Fundus Image Analysis Algorithms: Issues and a Proposal", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2013, pp. 3546-3559. [bib] [pdf]
[44] E. Trucco, A. Ruggeri,
"Towards A Multi-Site International Public Dataset For The Validation Of Retinal Image Analysis Software", in 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, Japan, 2013, pp. 7152-7155. [bib] [pdf]
[43] E. Trucco, L. Ballerini, D. Relan, A. Giachetti, T. MacGillivray, K. Zutis, C. Lupascu, D. Tegolo, E. Pellegrini, G. Robertson, P. Wilson, A. Doney, B. Dhillon,
"Novel VAMPIRE algorithms for quantitative analysis of the retinal vasculature", in 4th IEEE Biosignals and Biorobotics Conference (ISSNIP/BRC), 2013. [bib] [pdf]
[42] G. Robertson, E. Pellegrini, C. Gray, E. Trucco, T. MacGillivray,
"Investigating Post-processing of Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Images for Unsupervised Retinal Blood Vessel Detection", in 26th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), Porto, Portugal, 2013, pp. 441-444. [bib] [pdf]
[41] D. Relan, T. MacGillivray, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco,
"Retinal vessel classification: sorting arteries and veins", in 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, Japan, 2013, pp. 7396-7399. [bib] [pdf]
[40] C. A. Lupascu, D. Tegolo, E. Trucco,
"Accurate estimation of retinal vessel width using bagged decision trees and an extended multiresolution Hermite model", Medical Image Analysis, vol. 17, no. 8, 2013, pp. 1164-1180. [bib] [pdf]
[39] A. Giachetti, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, P. J. Wilson,
"The use of radial symmetry to localize retinal landmarks", Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 37, 2013, pp. 369-376. [bib] [pdf]
[38] K. S. Chin, E. Trucco, L. Tan, P. J. Wilson,
"Automatic fovea location in retinal images using anatomical priors and vessel density", Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 34, 2013, pp. 1152-1158. [bib] [pdf]
[37] A. Cavinato, L. Ballerini, E. Trucco, E. Grisan,
"Spline-based refinement of vessel contours in fundus retinal images for width estimation", in 10th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), San Francisco, 2013, pp. 860-863. [bib] [pdf]
2012
[36] A. Perez-Rovira, R. Cabido, E. Trucco, S. McKenna, J. Hubschman,
"RERBEE: Robust Efficient Registration via Bifurcations and Elongated Elements applied to retinal fluorescein angiogram sequences", IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 31, 2012, pp. 140-150. [bib] [pdf]
[35] A. Zamperini, A. Giachetti, E. Trucco, K. S. Chin,
"Effective features for artery-vein classification in digital fundus images", in 25th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), 2012, pp. 1-6. [bib] [pdf]
[34] V. Franco-Cardenas, C. J. Gee, D. Appap, A. Ramirez, A. Perez-Rovira, K. Zutis, S. D. Schwartz, E. Trucco, J. P. Hubschman,
"Assessment of Retinal Non-Perfusion in Vascular Retinal Diseases using Single versus Summarized Ultra Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography Images", in Proceedings ARVO (Assocation for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Fort Lauderdale (USA), 2012. [bib]
2011
[33] A. Giachetti, K. Chin, E. Trucco, C. Cobb, P. Wilson,
"Multiresolution localization and segmentation of the optical disc in fundus images using inpainted background and vessel information", in 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), 2011, pp. 2145 -2148. [bib] [pdf]
[32] A. Perez-Rovira, T. MacGillivray, E. Trucco, K. Chin, K. Zutis, C. Lupascu, D. Tegolo, A. Giachetti, P. Wilson, A. Doney, B. Dhillon,
"VAMPIRE: Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the REtina", in 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2011, pp. 3391-3394. [bib] [pdf]
[31] A. Perez-Rovira, K. Zutis, J. Hubschman, E. Trucco,
"Improving vessel segmentation in ultra-wide field-of-view retinal fluorescein angiograms", in 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2011, pp. 2614-2617. [bib] [pdf]
[30] S. Tiew, A. Perez-Rovira, T. J. MacGillivray, S. Mahmood, P. Bishop, T. M. Aslam,
"Experience In Using The Vampire Retinal Analysis Tool To Assess Tortuosity In Patients Undergoing Bevacizumab (Avastin´┐Ż) Treatment For Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)", in Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), 2011. [bib]
[29] K. S. Chin, E. Trucco,
"Fovea detection using anatomical priors and vessel density", in Proc. Ophthalmic Workshop, Univ. of Liverpool, 2011. [bib]
2010
[28] C. A. Lupascu, D. Tegolo, E. Trucco,
"FABC: Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using AdaBoost", IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 14, no. 5, sep 2010, pp. 1267-1274. [bib] [pdf]
[27] A. Perez-Rovira, E. Trucco, P. Wilson, J. Liu,
"Deformable registration of retinal fluorescein angiogram sequences using vasculature structures", in IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference, 2010, pp. 4383-4386. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[26] E. Trucco, H. Azegrouz, B. Dhillon,
"Modeling the tortuosity of retinal vessels: does calibre play a role?", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 57, 2010, pp. 2239-2247. [bib] [pdf] [doi]
[25] A. Perez-Rovira, E. Trucco,
"Contextual optic disc location in retinal fundus images", Journal of Modern Optics, vol. 57, no. 2, 2010, pp. 136-144. [bib] [pdf]
[24] B. H. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Tan, E. Heng, J. Cheng, N. M. Tan, D. Wong, J. Mehta, E. Trucco,
"Corneal graft detection for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using optical coherence tomography", in International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBC), 2010. [bib] [pdf]
[23] F. Bellavia, D. Tegolo, E. Trucco,
"Improving SIFT-based descriptors stability to rotations", in International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2010. [bib] [pdf]
2009
[22] C. A. Lupascu, D. Tegolo, E. Trucco,
"A Comparative Study on Feature Selection for Retinal Vessel Segmentation using FeatAdaBoostClass", in International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP), 2009, pp. 655-662. [bib] [pdf]
[21] T. Aslam, B. Fleck, N. Patton, E. Trucco, H. Azegrouz,
"Digital image analysis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity", Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 87, no. 4, 2009, pp. 368-377. [bib] [pdf]
2008
[20] A. Perez-Rovira, E. Trucco,
"Robust optic disk location via combination of weak detectors", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2008. [bib]
[19] A. Perez-Rovira, E. Trucco,
"Robust optic disk location via combination of weak detectors", in International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBC), 2008. [bib] [pdf]
[18] C. Buchanan, E. Trucco,
"Contextual detection of diabetic pathologies in wide-field retinal angiograms", in International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBC), 2008. [bib] [pdf]
[17] C. Buchanan, E. Trucco,
"Contextual detection of diabetic pathologies in wide-field retinal angiograms", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2008. [bib]
2007
[16] E. Trucco, C. Buchanan, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon,
"Contextual detection of ischemic regions in ultra-wide-field-of-view fluorescein angiograms", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2007. [bib]
[15] E. Trucco, C. Buchanan,
"Automatic detection of hyper-fluorescent leakage in retinal angiographic sequences by temporal analysis", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2007. [bib]
[14] E. Trucco, C. Buchanan, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon,
"Contextual detection of ischemic regions in ultra-wide-field-of-view fluorescein angiograms", in International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBC), 2007. [bib] [pdf]
[13] C. Buchanan, E. Trucco, G. England, D. Cairns, C. Mazo,
"Automatic detection of hyperfluorescent leakage in fluorescein angiograms", in ARVO 2007. [bib]
2006
[12] H. Azegrouz, E. Trucco,
"Max-Min Central Vein Detection in Retinal Fundus Images", in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 1925-1928. [bib] [pdf]
[11] A. Nayak, E. Trucco, N. A. Thacker,
"When are Simple LS Estimators Enough? An Empirical Study of LS, TLS, and GTLS", International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 68, no. 2, jun 2006, pp. 203-216. [bib] [pdf]
[10] H. Azegrouz, E. Trucco,
"Max-Min Central Vein Detection in Retinal Fundus Images", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2006. [bib]
[9] H. Azegrouz, E. Trucco, B. Dhillon, T. MacGillivray, I. J. MacCormick,
"Thickness dependent tortuosity estimation for retinal blood vessels", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2006. [bib]
[8] H. Azegrouz, E. Trucco, B. Dhillon, T. MacGillivray, I. J. MacCormick,
"Thickness dependent tortuosity estimation for retinal blood vessels", in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS'06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp. 4675-4678. [bib] [pdf]
2005
[7] A. Lasso, E. Trucco,
"Vessel enhancement in digital X-ray angiographic sequences by temporal statistical learning", Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 29, no. 5, jul 2005, pp. 343-355. [bib] [pdf]
[6] E. Trucco, H. Azegrouz,
"Improving optic disk location in fundus camera images by plausible detection", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2005. [bib] [pdf]
[5] T. Andersen, E. Trucco,
"3-D iris tracking using correspondenceless stereo", in Proc 2nd Int Conf on Vision, Video and Graphics, 2005. [bib]
[4] E. Trucco, T. Anderson, M. Razeto, S. Ivekovic,
"Robust Correspondenceless 3-D Iris Location for Immersive Environments", in Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP), LNCS 3617, D. Hutchison et al., Eds., Springer, 2005, pp. 123-130. [bib] [pdf]
[3] E. Trucco, M. Razeto,
"Robust iris location in close-up images of the eye", Pattern Analysis & Applications, vol. 8, no. 3, 2005, pp. 247-255. [bib] [pdf]
[2] C. Mazo, E. Trucco, G. England, Y. Petillot, J. Bell, H. Harvey,
"Multi-channel multiple-source optic disk detection", in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA), 2005. [bib] [pdf]
2004
[1] E. Trucco, P. Kamat,
"Locating the optic disk in retinal images via plausible detection and constraint satisfaction", in 2004 International Conference on Image Processing, 2004. ICIP '04, pp. 155 - 158 Vol. 1. [bib] [pdf]
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